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National Moon Day I

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Wade Hampton III

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National Moon Day I

PostTue Jul 17, 2018 12:19 am

National Moon Day is observed annually on July 20 and commemorates the
day man first walked on the moon in 1969. NASA reported the moon landing
as being “…the single greatest technological achievement of all time.”

On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed the first humans, Americans Neil
Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on the moon. Six hours after landing,
Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface. He spent two and a half
hours outside the spacecraft. He was soon followed by Buzz Aldrin.
While Aldrin spent slightly less time on the moon than Armstrong,
together they collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back
to Earth. Michael Collins, piloted Apollo 11, remained alone in
orbit until Armstrong and Aldrin returned.

Caught up in the thrill of the adventure, millions watched the mission
from Earth. Televisions around the world tuned in to the live broadcasts
giving the astronaut a world-wide audience. As a result, all witnessed
as Armstrong stepped onto the moon’s surface and described the event as
“one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Unquestionably a tangible achievement in the space race, reaching the
moon placed the United States in a role to go forth and explore farther
and deeper into the reach of the universe. In the months and decade
that followed, NASA and the Soviets stepped up the missions. Fast forward
forty years and private expeditions plan to take humankind exploring our
solar system. Armstrong’s “one small step for mankind” inspired imaginations
and sparked innovation for generations to come.
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Wade Hampton III

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National Moon Day II

PostTue Jul 17, 2018 12:24 am

In 1971, President Richard Nixon proclaimed National Moon Landing Day on
July 20 to commemorate the anniversary of man’s first moon landing. With
no continuing proclamation to follow, Richard Christmas took up the baton
and began a “Christmas Card” writing campaign. A former gas station attendant,
the Michigan native wrote to governors, congressmen and senators in all 50
states urging them to create National Moon Day. By July of 1975, 12 states
had sponsored bills observing Moon Day.
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Wade Hampton III

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Re: National Moon Day II

PostFri Jul 20, 2018 2:21 pm

One year before Apollo 11 made history by landing on the Moon,
the mission’s hardware and astronauts were still coming together.
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https://www.space.com/41226-year-before ... 180720-sdc
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Sorry, Neil Armstrong...

PostFri Jul 27, 2018 3:29 am

...someone may have beaten you to it...

By Katyanna Quach 24 Jul 2018 at 06:07....

Earth's satellite may have been habitable billions of years ago!
The Moon may not have been as desolate as it is today – and could
have supported life on its surface after its formation some four
billion years ago. This revelation comes just days after the
anniversary of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin setting foot on
the Moon, a first for humankind, on July 20, 1969. A paper
published in Astrobiology on Monday described two periods in
the history of Earth's natural satellite, during which the
conditions may have been ripe for life to develop. The first
window of opportunity was shortly after it was forged from a
gigantic impact between Theia, an early planet, and Earth 4.5
billion years ago, and the second window was around 3.5 billion
years ago.
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The debris disk from which the Moon formed would have retained
some water and a small concentration of volatiles. After the
accretion process, where the disk grows in mass, the Moon is
expected to have been molten with flowing oceans of magma. These
oceans would have spewed out large volumes of hot gassy volatiles,
including water vapour. Liquid pools of water and atmospheres could
have formed during these fertile periods. 'Transiently habitable'

"If liquid water and a significant atmosphere were present on the
early Moon for long periods of time, we think the lunar surface
would have been at least transiently habitable," said Dirk Schulze-
Makuch, coauthor of the paper and a professor at Washington State
University in the US. There is evidence the Moon held on to some of
that water. In previous studies, scientists have found hundreds of
millions of metric tons of water ice on the Moon. There is also a
more water concentrations of several hundred parts per million
hidden inside its mantle.

The early Moon may also have been protected by a magnetic field to
protect it from the relentless solar wind that stripped away any
atmosphere. Although conditions may have been right for life to
emerge, the researchers believe it’s more likely that it would have
been brought there by a meteorite. Fossilized cyanobacteria has been
found in stromatolite – sedimentary rocks made out of layers of the
bacteria stacked onto another – on Earth. The oldest samples are
between 3.5 and 3.8 billion years old, during a tumultuous period in
the Solar System where it was filled with giant meteorites flung to
and fro between planets.

Meteorites could have picked up some of the cyanobacteria on Earth
when smashing off its surface, and landed on the moon. Some of the
bacteria could have survived the impact. "It looks very much like
the Moon was habitable at this time," Schulze-Makuch said. "There
could have actually been microbes thriving in water pools on the
Moon until the surface became dry and dead." To collect evidence
for their theory, the astroboffins will need rock deposits scraped
from the lunar surface to see whether there are signs of water, and
any other indication of other ingredients necessary for life.
Scientists could also perform lab experiments to see whether
cyanobacteria can survive in conditions that mirror the environment
on the young Moon. ®
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Re: National Moon Day I

PostMon Sep 03, 2018 9:52 pm

Future Caucasian Colony?

Reflections reveal frozen water at the lunar poles!

In the darkest and coldest parts of its polar regions, a team of scientists
has directly observed definitive evidence of water ice on the Moon’s surface.
These ice deposits are patchily distributed and could possibly be ancient.
At the southern pole, most of the ice is concentrated at lunar craters, while
the northern pole’s ice is more widely, but sparsely spread. A team of scientists,
led by Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii and Brown University and including
Richard Elphic from NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley,
used data from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument to identify three
specific signatures that definitively prove there is water ice at the surface
of the Moon. M3, aboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, launched in 2008 by the
Indian Space Research Organization, was uniquely equipped to confirm the presence
of solid ice on the Moon. It collected data that not only picked up the reflective
properties we’d expect from ice, but was able to directly measure the distinctive
way its molecules absorb infrared light, so it can differentiate between liquid
water or vapor and solid ice. Most of the newfound water ice lies in the shadows
of craters near the poles, where the warmest temperatures never reach above –150
degrees Celsius. Because of the very small tilt of the Moon’s rotation axis,
sunlight never reaches these regions.
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Previous observations indirectly found possible signs of surface ice at the lunar
south pole, but these could have been explained by other phenomena, such as
unusually reflective lunar soil. With enough ice sitting at the surface – within
the top few millimetres – water would possibly be accessible as a resource for
future expeditions to explore and even stay on the Moon, and potentially easier
to access than the water detected beneath the Moon’s surface. Learning more about
this ice, how it got there, and how it interacts with the larger lunar environment
will be a key mission focus for NASA and commercial partners, as we endeavor to
return to and explore our closest neighbor, the Moon.
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Re: National Moon Day I

PostSun May 05, 2019 5:11 am

Lunar Colonization....

Even in fantasy, space ventures have always mingled idealistic and worldly
motives. H. G. Wells published “The First Men in the Moon” in 1901. The
novel’s narrator, Mr. Bedford, wants to make money. His collaborator,
Mr. Cavor, dreams of knowledge. Together they go to the moon. When they
encounter moon dwellers—“compact, bristling” creatures, “having much of
the quality of a complicated insect”—Bedford wants to destroy them;
Cavor wants to learn from them. Bedford finds gold, and embarks “upon
an argument to show the infinite benefits our arrival would confer upon
the moon,” involving himself “in a rather difficult proof that the
arrival of Columbus was, on the whole, beneficial to America.” Cavor
is indifferent to the gold—it’s a familiar mineral. Moon dwellers
capture and chain Bedford and Cavor, then march them underground.
Cavor assumes that there must be other, less brutal moon dwellers,
as enlightened and knowledge-loving as he. In the end, Bedford makes
it back to Earth. Cavor is presumed dead. But no one with a heart
reads the novel and wants to be Bedford.
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https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0058100/

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019 ... ket-newtab

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019 ... ket-newtab
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Re: National Moon Day I

PostThu Jun 20, 2019 1:27 am

An exploration of ten of the stranger aspects of our planetary neighbor Luna:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9l116nZUDI
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Re: National Moon Day I

PostSun Jun 30, 2019 4:10 pm

The Phases Of Terra From Luna

From live Science....

There would be a sweet view of Earth from the moon. If you lived on the moon, you'd have to
give up lots of things you take for granted on Earth. The feeling of your feet planted firmly
on the ground. Your ability to breathe outside without a helmet. And your night-sky view.
Humans of all races have spent millennia staring up at the moon [comprehending it is another
issue], watching it rise and set, charting its phases as it grows and shrinks each month. But
from the viewpoint of the moon, how would the Earth look hanging in the sky?
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Well, first, that depends on where you're standing. The moon is tidally locked with Earth,
meaning the moon's orbital period matches its rotational period. It takes about a month for
both the moon to orbit Earth and for the moon to rotate on its axis. Effectively, this means
that the same side of the moon always facing our planet. That's why when you peer through a
telescope, the craters and other features on the surface of the moon are always in the same
place. The first humans who directly saw the far side of the moon, that is, the side that's
always facing away from Earth, were the Apollo 8 astronauts.
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If you were camped out on the far side of the moon, you'd never have a view of Earth. If you
were based on the near side, you'd see Earth all the time. And Earth would indeed appear to
go through phases over the course of about a month, directly opposite to the lunar phases
people on Earth would be witnessing, said Phil Nicholson, professor and deputy director of
the Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science in Ithaca, New York. Lunar phases
occur because one-half of the moon is always lit up by the sun. The month-long cycle of waxing
and waning that we see is just the long lunar day turning into night as the moon orbits Earth.
While Earthlings stare at a darkened new moon (when the side of the moon facing Earth is not
lit up by Sol), a lunar observer would be looking at a "full Earth," the half of the planet
totally illuminated by the sun. Over the following two weeks, moon dwellers would see a
shrinking crescent of Earth until the moon was directly facing the darkened nighttime side
of the planet. At that point, Earthlings would be basking in the light of the full moon. To
a person standing on the moon, this full moon's reflected light (and maybe some artificial
light) might make the new Earth faintly visible.
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"It wouldn't just look dark," Christine Shupla, the education and public engagement manager
at NASA's Lunar and Planetary Institute, told Live Science. "You would see potentially lights
on the Earth in cities." Your view of Earth, however, might not be crystal clear. If the part
of the moon you're on is experiencing day, your observations of the cosmos might be affected
by the sun glaring off your helmet or moon rocks, Shupla noted. But because the moon has no
atmosphere, you would still be able to look at the stars during the day. The Earth would also
look much bigger than the moon does to us. (The Earth is about four times larger than the moon,
in diameter.) And from the perspective of the moon, Earth would also always appear to be in
a fixed location. "While the Earth goes through phases, it doesn't actually move in the sky,"
Nicholson told Live Science. "It wobbles backwards and forwards a little bit because of the
moon's elliptical, but it doesn't rise and set like the moon does for the Earth." So if you
were standing in what we perceive as the middle of the lunar disk, the Earth would always
appear to be directly overhead. However, from the moon, you wouldn't always see the same
features of Earth. You'd notice different features as the planet spins. "The Earth is rotating
faster than the moon," Shupla said. "Sometimes you would see more oceans and sometimes you
would see more continents as the hours go by."

The question also got Nicholson thinking about what sort of eclipses you'd see from the moon.

"If you were living on the moon, it'd be easier to see solar eclipses because the Earth is
so much bigger," he said. What we call a lunar eclipse (when the moon is in the shadow of
the sun) would be a solar eclipse from the perspective of the moon. These would occur two
or three times a year. And when a solar eclipse occurs from the viewpoint of Earth, maybe
with the help of a telescope, you'd be able to watch the moon cast its large shadow across
Earth.

"You would see a little black spot," Nicholson said. "That has actually been photographed
from orbit. It looks like a little black hole that's trying to swallow Earth."

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